OF MARY ~ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA
the Catholic Encyclopedia, copyright © 1913 by the Encyclopedia Press, Inc.
Electronic version copyright © 1996 by New
PROCEDURE IN CAUSES OF BEATIFICATION AND CANONIZATION
must first distinguish causes of martyrs from those of confessors or virgins,
since the method followed is not entirely identical in both cases.
Beatification of Confessors
order to secure beatification (the most important and difficult step in the
process of canonization) the regular procedure is as follows:
of a vice-postulator by the postulator-general of the cause, to promote all
the judicial inquiries necessary in places outside of Rome. Such inquiries
are instituted by the local episcopal authority.
preparation of the inquiries (processus) all of which are carried on
by the ordinary episcopal authority. They are of three kinds: (a) Informative
inquiries regard the reputation for sanctity and miracles of the servants of
God, not only in general, but also in particular instances; there may be
several such inquiries if the witnesses to be examined belong to different
dioceses. (b) Processes de non cultu are instituted to prove that the
decrees of Urban VIII regarding the prohibition of public worship of
servants of God before their beatification have been obeyed; they are
generally conducted by the bishop of the place where the relics of the
servant of God are preserved. (c) Other inquiries are known as
Processiculi diligentiarum and have for their object the writings attributed
to the person whose beatification is in question; they vary in number
according to the dioceses where such writings are found, or are thought
likely to be found, and may not be judicially executed before an
"Instruction" is obtained from the promotor of the Faith by the
postulator-general and by him sent to the bishop in question.
results of all these inquiries are sent to Rome, to the Congregation of
Rites, in charge of a messenger (portitor) chosen by the judges, or
by some other secure way, in case a rescript of the congregation dispenses
from the obligation of sending a messenger.
are opened, translated if necessary into Italian, a public copy is made, and
a cardinal is deputed by the pope as relator or ponens of the
cause, for all which steps rescripts of the congregation, confirmed by the
pope, must be obtained.
writings of the servant of God are next revised by theologians appointed by
the cardinal relator himself, authorized to so act by a special rescript.
Meantime, the advocate and the procurator of the cause, chosen by the
postulator-general, have prepared all the documents that concern the
introduction of the cause (positio super introductione causae). These
consist of (a) a summary of the informative processes, (b) an information,
(c) answers to the observations or difficulties of the promotor of the Faith
sent by him to the Postulator.
collection of documents (positio) is printed and distributed to the
cardinals of the Congregation of Rites forty days before the date assigned
for their discussion.
nothing contrary to faith and morals is found in the writings of the servant
of God, a decree is published, authorizing further action (quod
in causā procedi possit ad ulteriora), i. e., the discussion of the matter
(dubium) of appointment or non-appointment of a commission for the
introduction of the cause.
had nearly completed his ninety-first year. He was declared
"Venerable", 4 May, 1796; was beatified in 1816, and canonized in
1839. In 1871, he was declared a Doctor of the Church.
of Catholic Encyclopedia Quotes)
to this, a person Cannot be Canonized if he has published any writings which
are contrary to the Roman Catholic Church's Doctrine. So, St. Liguori
was made a Saint, thus a seal of approval was given to his works. A seal
of approval was given again by Cardinal Patrick Joseph Hays, of New York.
After his death, Rome gave its seal of approval, declaring him a Doctor of the
Church and the patron of moralists and confessors